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This assessment paper will concentrate on some crucial agents, and these are: Resveratrol, Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, Disulfiram and metformin.

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The one of a kind characteristic about this agent is that it sensitizes most cancers stem cells to 5-FU. (Buhrmann et al. , 2018). rnSecondly, mentioning Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors. This course of agents has a sizeable purpose in suppressing cancer stem cells of distinctive most cancers sorts by various mechanisms, but not all of them are completely discussed.

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There is proof that these brokers can assist the deacetylation of non-histone targets linked to cancer stem cells homeostasis producing it target-certain (Lin et al. , 2018). rnrnNews magazine, new neuroscience investigate have not long ago occur about about the consequences of Alzheimer’s ailment, particularly snooze. Individuals with Alzheimers have issues sleeping as properly as establish up of amyloid-beta protein.

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The Punjab and Haryana High Court Issues Notices on Plea Against The Web Series, “Paatal Lok”

On 15 June 2020, the Punjab and Haryana High Court in the case of Gurdeepinder Singh Dhillon v. Union of India and Ors issued notice to Central and State Governments in a plea asking for regulation of the content in the web series “Paatal Lok” streamed on Amazon Prime.

Order by: Justice Arun Kumar Tyagi. 


  • The petition was filed by Gurdeepinder Singh Dhillon, represented by Advocate R.S. Randhawa. 
  • The petitioner has approached the HC under Article 226 and Article 227 of the Constitution to seeking a writ of mandamus for the regulation of content of web series “Paatal Lok” being broadcasted by Respondent No. 7 OTT Platform i.e. Amazon Prime Videos.

Arguments by Petitioner:

  • The Petitioner has argued that the content is “illegal, anti-social, vulgar, abusive, minority oppressive and anti-national” and is being broadcasted without the approval of any Government authority.
  • The content being aired on such platforms should get prior government approval or authentication before being aired. 
  • The petitioner has also sought a direction to the State Government to register First Information Report (FIR) against the makers of Paatal Lok. 
  • This would include the producer of Paatal Lok, Anushka Sharma.
  • The broadcaster of Paatal Lok, Amazon Prime Videos, who is currently broadcasting the show on their platform.

    The allegations made by the petitioner were:
  • The third episode namely, “History of Violence” was intentionally made to augment communal tension.
  • Caste based clashes were emphasized portraying two particular castes in a bad light. 
  •  An episode set in Punjab also used caste-based abusive language which leads to animosity between the people belonging to those two castes.
  • In an episode, members of the Sikh community referred to a boy as ‘Manjaar’, which as a portrayal was not only criminal but also defamatory. 
  • The members of the Sikh community were also portrayed as oppressors of society in general and women in particular. 

    The Petitioner has argued that broadcasting this content amounts to a violation of the following:
  • IPC- Section 295A (Deliberate and malicious acts, intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs)
  • IT Act 2000 – Section 67 (Punishment for publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form), 
  • IT Act 2000 – Section 67A (Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act, etc., in electronic form),
  • IT Act 2000 – Section 67B (Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material depicting children in sexually explicit act, etc. in electronic form,
  • Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act 1986- Section 4 read with Section 6 (Prohibition of publication or sending by post of books, pamphlets, etc., containing indecent representation of women).

Court’s Order dated 15 June, 2020

  • The Court issued notices to all the respondents viz. Central and State Governments, along with the Producers, Directors, Writers and Broadcasters of the content.
  • The Court has asked the Union of India to file their reply.
  • The matter has been adjourned to hearing on 2 July 2020.

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If you entirely recognize why something transpired, it will be less difficult to clarify why the consequences took put. Trigger and impact chain.

This form of composition is trickier than prior two on the listing and it reminds the domino product. Demonstrating a reasonable sequence of occasions adopted by corresponding results can be very complicated mainly because it requires an capacity to effortlessly and logically correlate will cause and effects one by a person. Choose a subject matter effectively. Very normally, students are assigned a specific matter to generate on but if you have an opportunity to pick the topic of dialogue by you, use this possibility wisely. If you pick out a matter that you can relate to, it is additional possible that you will arrive up with a great essay. You could not be capable to publish your finest paper if you examine one thing that you you should not like or basically really don’t understand. Here’s our assortment of fascinating bring about and effect essay subjects, which you may possibly use as illustrations:Climate transform results in and potential results Examining the penalties of the Civil War in the United States Contamination of the ocean and its possible threats Pros and negatives of cloning people Repercussions of living devoid of a father Cause and outcome essay on overpopulation. Use transitional words and phrases. When writing a cause and impact essay, 1 has to make certain that the tips are logically structured.

For the sentences to be effortlessly related, you are strongly advised to use transition phrases, which are necessary literary units used for introducing a specified change in between details and ideas. Let’s have a appear at some of them:For this purpose Consequently Thereupon That’s why Below people instances Due to As a result As a outcome. Hopefully, crafting a induce and effect essay is no extended frightening for you but if you even now wrestle, get rid of the stress, make contact with us and get your paper prepared by a expert essay writing support. Cause and Impact Essay: Crucial Methods to Composing a Highly effective Paper. Cause and Result Essay Definition. A bring about and outcome essay is a type of essay that is penned or edited with an aim of outlining why items materialize (causes) and what are the outcomes (consequences) that consequence from the occurring of that celebration or circumstance.

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In addition, the essay can also have a domino impact or casual chain which is when a person event takes place, and its outcomes guide to a further occasion. Searching for induce and outcome essay illustrations for college or university composing? Read a fantastic just one beneath!CAUSE AND Result ESSAY Illustration ON POVERTY. Cause and Effect Essay Define. A trigger and effect essay define is normally structured in accordance to the 5-paragraph essay format with an introduction, overall body paragraphs, and a summary. Cause and result essay outline can be in three common kinds which are:1. A lot of brings about leading to a single effect, the outline will glance like. Introduction: the information about the function or situation of the essay. Human body: initially trigger, next trigger and third bring about leading to a solitary outcome. Summary: a summary of all the leads to and its one outcome and proving in a thesis statement. 2. A single lead to leading to several consequences. Introduction: pertaining to the function or situation of the essay and a cause and impact thesis statement.

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On 29 May 2020, The Delhi High Court rejected a plea to restrain the invoke of bank guarantees on the event of Force Majeure clause being adduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The judgment decided by Justice Prathiba M. Singh was filed by M/s Halliburton Offshore Services Inc. under Section 9 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 in order to seek to restrain in the invocation of bank guarantees, five of which were set to expire on 30th June 2020 and remaining three on 24th November 2020. 

After studying the facts of the case, the Court was of an opinion that the non-performance of the contract cannot be simply excused on the ground of ‘force majeure’ due to the pandemic. It further stated that the force majeure event will depend on facts and circumstances of the case, which is not applicable in the case of non-performance of a contract. Every breach of contract cannot be construed as an event of force-majeure condition. For better decision making in such events, the Court stated that it has to duly examine on the basis of the access with regard to the conduct of the parties prior to the outbreak, the deadlines of the contract, the steps taken for prevention of contract, various compliances required to be made and scrutinize whether the parties genuinely prevented the same to justify the non-performance of the contract. Further, it stated that it is a settled position in law that the force majeure clause is to interpreted in a narrow, not broad context. It is essential that parties adhere to contractual terms and conditions and not excuse for non-performance of the contract (which is only permissible in exceptional circumstances). 

In the present case, the contractor can not be condoned due to pandemic in March 2020, since the breach of contract was since September 2019. Opportunities were given to the contractor to cure the contract in various instances. The bench further clarified that the claims and counterclaims should be adjudicated duly before the Arbitral Tribunal in accordance with the law and prima facie should not bind the arbitral proceedings in any manner whatsoever. 

With regard to bank guarantees, the Court noted that the contractor has clearly defaulted in its performance despite the repetitive opportunities. The Bank Guarantees in the present case are unconditional and irrevocable. Also, all the bank guarantees are valid in nature as the language of the financial performance of the Bank Guarantees makes it quite evident that simply on-demand, the bank has to make the payment. Additionally, on the issue of advanced bank guarantees, the Court noted that the Advance Bank Guarantees should be invoked and encashed in a separate ‘joint account’ to be held jointly by the contractor and the companies. The ‘joint account’ should be opened within the duration of 3 days and the amounts of the Advance Bank Guarantees should be directly deposited on the said account. The reconciliation procedure should be completed in two weeks. Nonetheless, the ad-interim order passed on 20th April 2020 stands vacated by the Delhi High Court.


On April 27, 2020, a series of amendments were introduced which permitted 100% foreign investment into insurance intermediaries and removed the requirement of control by Indian citizens only.


  • The government amended the FDI norms in 2015. The new law introduced was called Insurance Laws (Amendment) Act, 2015 and the Indian Insurance Companies (Foreign Investment) Rules, 2015. It raised the threshold for the foreign investment from 26% to 49% of the paid-up share capital and required for the control of insurance companies to be with Indian Companies.
  • Since the introduction of amendments, there has been a demand to expand the foreign investment limits and to remove the ‘resident owned and controlled’ requirement. For insurance intermediaries, per se, the industry has been requesting the foreign investments caps and control to be removed by Indian citizens considering that they do not have a strategic importance and pose any systemic risk.
  • The Government considered these suggestions during framework of Budget for the Financial year 2019-2020. Later, the Department for the Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade in a Press Note released on February 21, 2020 amended the consolidated FDI Policy of 2017 to permit 100% FDI in insurance intermediaries. The Note removed the requirement of control by Indian citizens and required FEMA (Non-debt instruments) Rules, 2019 (also known as ‘ND Rules’) to be amended which later incorporated on April 27, 2020. 


  1. Diverging Insurance Sector from an Exchange Control Outlook: 
  • The insurance sector has now been divided into 2 categories:
  1. Insurance companies and
  2.  Insurance intermediaries (includes Corporate Agents, Insurance Brokers and 3rd part administrators).
  • The expansion of the foreign investment limit in insurance intermediary sector has always been considered as easy administered and palatable since intermediaries as such do not have any policyholders’ fund and do not pose any systematic risk. 
  1. Liberalisation of Foreign Investment:
  • Foreign Investors shall be permitted to set up ‘wholly owned subsidiaries’ registered as insurance intermediaries, however, they are still required to comply with IRDAI Regulations, which require the prior approval of IRDAI for transfer or issuance of shares above a certain threshold. 
  • The insurance intermediaries had devised innovative structures so as to attract foreign investment. Thus, they can raise foreign investment up to 49% from foreign investors and additional foreign investment at the holding company level from unrelated foreign investors. 
  • Restructuring to permit investors in the holding company to swap their shares in the insurance intermediary directly would:
  1. Require IRDAI approval
  2. May be a taxable event, since the swap would entail a higher value
  1. Conditions for majority foreign shareholding:

The following conditions were provided in ND Amendment and the Press Note for an insurance intermediary to have a majority foreign shareholding:

  • Incorporation of limited company under Companies Act, 2013: Majority of the insurance intermediaries are to be formed as companies, especially since limited liability partnerships (LLPs) or partnerships in the insurance sectors were not permitted to raise foreign investment.
  • Chairman of the Board of Directors, CEO, Principle Officer or Managing Director of the Insurance Intermediary shall be resident Indian citizen: There shall be an Indian Resident who is overall responsible for the affairs of the intermediary. Inclusion of the principle officer seems to dilute the condition, considering the requirements and training required by a principle officer. 
  • Take prior permission to the Authority for repatriating dividend: It is the intention of IRDAI to ensure that there is no cash extraction by the insurance intermediaries. However, most of these intermediaries deploy majority of revenue for expansion instead of repatriating dividend
  • Bring the latest technological, managerial and other skills: IRDAI has indicated in the past that the foreign players shall bring enhancement in the form of technology, managerial or others skills. Such intimation has to be provided while filling an approval by IRDAI, which becomes complicated in cases where multiple investors invest such that the aggregate foreign investment exceeds 50%. In such scenarios, the last investor has to satisfy such condition.
  • Not make payments to foreign group, promoter, subsidiary, interconnected or associate entities: It is necessary to make disclosures in the format to be specified by the authority for all payments made to groups, promoters etc. The subsidiaries shall keep reporting the payments and keep the same on track since the insurance intermediary must not extract cash to other entities without the approval of IRDAI.
  • Composition of the Board of Directors and key management persons shall be as specified by the concerned regulators: IRDAI is expected to issue guidelines from time to time for composition of key management persons to ensure independence and operational expertise with regard to governance of intermediaries. 

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    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID – 19) has brought with it a wave of slowdown for the economy of mostly all the countries across the globe. The listed companies should be aware of few additional compliance requirements as per the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

    Leeway in Disclosures

    • Under the SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015, (Regulations) there have to be periodic disclosures by listed entities of any event that might materially affect the company. 
    • Besides, there are also disclosures with respect to financial results, annual reports and shareholding structure. 
    • The SEBI has permitted an extension in timeline for submission of such information through its circular dated 12 May 2020. 
    • There has also been leeway provided for requirements for fund-raising and notice for board meetings to stock exchange.
    • Listed entities which are banking or insurance companies including ones with banks or insurance companies as subsidiaries may submit consolidated financial results under regulation 33(3)(b) for the quarter ending 30 June 2020 voluntarily. 
    • They shall continue to submit the standalone financial results are required under regulation 33(3)(a) of the Regulations. The listed entities should give reason if they want to submit only standalone financial results and not consolidated ones. 

    Meetings via Video-Conferencing

    • There has also been permission to conduct board meetings online until 30 June 2020.
    • Shareholder meeting if required before 30 June 2020 can be conducted online too.
    • The companies are also advised to adopt a work from home policy during this emergency situation. 
    • Listed companies should also have committee of the board to take decisions for the board in response to the pandemic. 
    • Also, the Regulations mandate the listed companies to have a succession plan for board and the management. 
    • Regulation 44(4) mandate sending of proxy forms to holders of securities in all cases and members may vote for or against a resolution. 
    • However, this has been done away with temporarily when meetings are conducted electronically. 
    • This relaxation is given to listed companies that may conduct their annual general meetings thorough electronic mode till 31 December 2020.

    Closure of Trading Window

    • The trading window in relation to declaration of results for financial year ended by 31 March 2020 and this would have opened again within forty eight (48) hours after 30 May 2020 but since the last date of submission has been extended to 30 June 2020, the trading window shall also stand extended. 

    Payment of Dividend

    • ‘Payable at par’ warrants or cheques will be issued if it is not possible to make payments electronically. 
    • If the amount of dividend exceeds INR 1500/-, then the ‘payable at par’ warrant or cheque can be sent via speed post. 
    • If the email address of the shareholders are available, then the listed entities shall endeavour to obtain their bank account details and make the payments electronically.

    Relaxation from Publication in Newspapers

    • SEBI vide circular no. SEBI/HO/CFD/CMD1/CIR/P/2020/48 dated 26 March 2020 had exempted  publication  of  advertisements  in  newspapers,  for  all  events  scheduled  till  15 May 2020. 
    • This is because most newspapers have stopped their print versions due to the pandemic. 
    • Due to the continuation of the lockdown, this has been extended for all events scheduled till 30 June 2020.

    Enforcement Directorate Arrested and Filed Chargesheet against Rana Kapoor of Yes Bank for a Fresh Money Laundering Case

    The Enforcement Directorate on 17 March 2020 filed fresh money laundering charges against Rana Kapoor, promoter Yes Bank and his wife, Bindu Kapoor for obtaining INR 307 crore bribe from a realty firm, Avantha Realty, via the purchase of 1.2 acre-bungalow in Amrita Shergill Marg, Lutyens’, Delhi at half the market value of the property. 

    Illegal gratifications: 

    • The Kapoors in return facilitated loans worth over INR 1900 crore from Yes Bank to Avantha Realty and also postponed recovery. 
    • The Enforcement Directorate believed that Rana Kapoor extended further loans to Avantha Realty during his tenure at the bank. 

    Manner in which the gratification took place: 

    • This illegal mutual gratification was carried on by the purchase of the property by Bliss Abode Private Limited, one of the directors of which was Bindu Kapoor, at half the market value from Avantha Realty and Yes Bank in return not realising the over INR 1900 crore loans from Yes Bank to Gautam Thapar, the promoter of Avantha Realty. 

    Proofs against the Kapoors:

    • The Enforcement Directorate also gathered several financial documents pertaining to ownership, sale and mortgage of the property. 
    • The bungalow was bought at INR 378 crore by paying through Bliss Abode and there was simultaneous mortgage to Indiabulls Housing Finance Limited for a loan of INR 685 crore. This was INR 307 crore less than the market value.
    • Also, the Additional Solicitor General informed the court that before acquiring the property, Bliss Abode had also borrowed INR 90 crore loan from Indiabulls against the same property. 
    • The property was later bought by Rana Kapoor from Yes Bank through Bliss Abode. The property was initially mortgaged with ICICI Bank and then with Yes Bank. Around INR 400 crore were lent from the bank and paid to ICICI Bank for the loan taken on the property. 
    • This would be the second complaint against him under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002. 
    • The money laundering probe began against the Kapoors after the Reserve Bank imposed moratorium on Yes Bank because of its financial crisis restricting withdrawals to INR 50,000 per depositor. 
    • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) also conducted searches at the residence and office of Rana Kapoor, Bindu Kapoor, Bliss Abode and Avantha Realty.
    • Thereafter Rana Kapoor was arrested by the Enforcement Directorate on 8 March 2020 and Gautam Thapar, promoter Avantha Group, was summoned for further questioning. 
    • The CBI had also issued fresh cases against Rana Kapoor, Gautam Thapar and Bindu Kapoor amongst others for this deal. 
    • The cases were registered under section 120B and 420 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 and also section 7, 11 and 12 of the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.

    Reasons for chargesheet against Rana Kapoor:

    • Further, on 6 May 2020, the Enforcement Directorate filed chargesheet against Rana Kapoor who was arrested on money laundering charges on 8 March 2020 under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002. 
    • He was accused of sanctioning loans to certain firms in return for illegal gratifications. 
    • The CBI also investigated INR 600 crore received by a company controlled by Rana Kapoor, Bindu Kapoor and their three daughters. They obtained it from an entity connected to the Dewan Housing Finance Limited which is itself hit by a scam. 
    • They also got benefits worth INR 4,300 crore through companies controlled by them in lieu of the loans sanctioned by them. 
    • Thereafter, they also went easy and delayed recovery of loans given to big corporate groups which had in turn gotten converted into non-performing assets. 

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    Final night time I resolved to apply for my 1st university to transfer to Fall 2020. If the neighborhood admissions officer requests a waitlist letter (or a list of updated achievements), you have the go-forward to send in your letter. UCI Division of Continuing Instruction extends enrollment availability to students in the order they seem on the waiting around record. edu WILLIAMSTOWN, Mass.

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    Many of the students that acquired into College of California-Irvine gained an SAT rating involving 1480 – 1890, or bought approved with an ACT rating between Exam Scores (Ranges of Deposited College students) Evaluation. Transfer. We boost participation in larger education and learning by giving packages of aid to support bridge the gap amongst the cost of attending the University and the family’s personal assets. Lecturers.

    We have to have you to acquire all upper-level classes at an accredited 4 yr college or university or college in the U. Instructors are delivered with copies of the waiting checklist and are requested to comply with this What are your chances of getting admitted off a college waitlist? According to a 2019 survey from the National Affiliation of Faculty Admissions Counseling (NACAC), forty three % of 4-calendar year schools documented using a waitlist in 2018. Footer These data capture percentages for applicants and registered initially-yr college students by gender, ethnicity, disciplinary area, faculty, property locale, and other position (latest-yr data are exhibited with past several years for comparison). It bridges the gap among “schools I am pondering about” and “faculties I am applying to” and streamlines the course of action for equally students and counselors. or Canada. deleted773031. Aug 02, 2013 · 20 votes, 63 feedback.

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    Print media is not useless and continue to has its place.

    Do you agree? Why or why not? Will banning smoking cigarettes in general public areas minimize the incidences of lung cancer? Explain employment suited for a college or university scholar to receive some extra funds. In selecting a career route, must you observe passion or practicality? Discuss successful techniques to retain a extensive-distance connection Explain methods to stay enthusiastic in your position Describe the procedures you would use to develop a new cellular application Clarify the change in between rugby and soccer Are we way too dependent on social media?An illustration essay presents you a prospect to decide on an element of your life and analyze it by offering distinct and particular examples. Such personalized component can possibly be a special human being, a substantial place, or an critical item. Among other sorts of essays, it is one of the least difficult to compose.

    It is the same as displaying a verbal graphic to illustrate your excellent publish to find all around point. Nonetheless, if you nevertheless uncover it puzzling, just bear in mind the guidelines outlined previously mentioned on how to generate an illustration essay. Tips and Tips on How to Create a Good Illustration Essay. Share. An illustration essay is a useful exercise in advance of composing your upcoming thesis. Men and women connect with it as student’s initial stage to the joy of discovery.

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    This kind of papers encourages them to use fresh new strategies when it will come to supportive arguments and to pay out a lot more notice to the study course of action. Illustration essay teaches how to obtain and assemble suitable elements for writing. It is a person of the essential jobs students offer with at school. Let us figure out some ideas that will enable you to receive increased grades. Definition of Illustration Essay. An illustration essay is a kind of enlightening producing, whose reason is to reveal that specific thing exists and functions in a certain way.

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    An illustration essay is also identified as exemplification paper. It signifies that an creator demands to summarize empirical data and consist of their definition. It is not a discovery of a thing model-new, just a summary of ordeals by supplying vivid illustrations that explain the difficulty.

    These illustrations are what can make an illustration essay excellent. No emphasis on sensations or discoveries is necessary. One has to display a subject matter notion through supporting specifics so visitors can envision all those circumstances. The clarification of conclusions with a chain of illustrations is a have to.

    Use people, situations, activities that make an problem additional connected to actual life. Step-by-Move Guidebook to Composing Illustration Essay. Step one: Pick a subject matter. Feel about a thing that bothers you, identify the principal object, then produce about it.

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    The Supreme Court on Wednesday held the international arbitral award of 1989 by Federation of Oil, Seeds and Fats Associations Ltd (FOSFA) against India’s agency, NAFED as “unenforceable” because it was in direct conflict with the public policy of India. The award was rendered after NAFED failed to supply the entire contracted quantity of 5,000 metric tonnes of groundnut to the foreign firm, Alimenta S.A in 1979-80.

    During the contracted period, on account of the Government directives, NAFED was unable to export the entire quantity of groundnuts to Alimenta S.A and had to default in respect of its contractual obligations. On account of the arbitration clause that had existed between the parties, Alimenta S.A invoked arbitration against NAFED before the Federation of Oil Seeds and Fats Associations Ltd., London (“FOSFA”). Consequently, on 15.11.1989, FOSFA passed a foreign award directing NAFED to pay a total sum of USD 4,681,000 with interest @10.5% p.a. to Alimenta S.A.

    Pursuant to the Award passed by FOSFA, an appeal was filed before the Board of Appeal by NAFED challenging the Foreign Award, however, the Board of appeal upheld the award against NAFED. Owing to its success before the Board of Appeal, Alimenta applied for enforcement of the foreign award before the Delhi High Court. After a series of proceedings and appeals, the High Court eventually held that the award was enforceable and converted it into a decree of the court as required under the old arbitration regime. The order was appealed to the Supreme Court of India by NAFED, which was ultimately successful.

    Re-Conceptualizing Patent Rights amidst pandemic

    The World Health Organization (WHO) issued a directive that classified the Coronavirus disease (hereinafter ‘COVID-19’) outbreak as a global pandemic, subsequent to this many questions have emerged regarding the patent rights around the medicines, vaccines, technology that are used in laboratory tests for COVID-19. This raises the question, what is the importance of patent rights in the health sector and how does it affect the interest of the public during a pandemic? The patent system was introduced to promote and encourage innovation in the respective field by assuring the developers’ exclusive rights over their innovation. In the context of the health sector, development of new drugs and technology requires long term research, expensive clinical trials, and other regulatory procedures and by ensuring exclusive rights over their innovation it serves as an incentive to make the initial investments.  

    The challenge that arises with such exclusivity is to find an optimal balance between the rights of the patent owners and public welfare.  In a recent article, co-authored by the Nobel Laureate in economics, Joseph E Stiglitz stated that “With the arrival of COVID-19, it is now painfully obvious that such monopolization comes at the cost of human lives. Monopoly control over the technology used in testing for the virus has hampered the rapid roll-out of more testing kits, just as 3M’s 441 patents mentioning “respirator” or “N95” have made it more difficult for new producers to manufacture medical-grade face masks at scale. Worse, multiple patents are in force in most of the world for three of the most promising treatments for COVID-19 — remdesivir, favipiravir, and lopinavir/ritonavir. Already, these patents are preventing competition and threatening both the affordability and the supply of new drugs.” This captures the detrimental effect of patent rights and monopolization in the health sector on the greater public good.

    For the longest time in the history of patent rights, there has been an on-going debate between public health advocates and pro- IP practitioners about the implications of patent rights and monopolization of the health sector. Though patent protection drives innovations and research, it simultaneously culls competitions and democratization of new drugs and technologies. For years, pharmaceutical companies have commercialized the health sector and hoarded knowledge through countless patents over life-saving drugs. Such actions are often ignored in our day to day life, however, when the world comes to a standstill by a pandemic, we are forced to revisit these protections and privileges that may further deny us the technologies we need at this hour. 

    The need to democratize health sector in the face of a pandemic

    It is unfortunate to note with the arrival of COVID- 19, that monopolization comes at the cost of human lives wherein many of the drugs that were meant to cater to the needs of the public are kept beyond their reach and affordability. However, over the past months, we have witnessed several strategies being spurred to action in order to ensure the increased availability of patented drugs. Costa Rica’s government recently called on the WHO to establish a voluntary pool of IP rights for COVID-19 treatments, which would allow multiple manufacturers to supply new drugs and diagnostics at more affordable prices to the public. Such patent pools, prize funds, and other similar alternatives fall within the broader program of increasing the accessibility of life-saving drugs at crucial hours such as the pandemic we are currently battling. Many countries, including Germany and Israel, are seen to be acting on their feet by suspending patent rights over the drugs that are required to battle this pandemic. It is imperative for the governments to formulate policies and measures to ensure that patent protections do not hinder access to medicines, technologies, and other necessities. Further, governments can permit compulsory licensing or government use of products that are protected by patents in the face of such unprecedented times. All these initiatives will help further the goal to replace a monopoly-driven system with one based on cooperation and shared knowledge which will inevitably preserve the rights and wellbeing of the public. 

    The cost of such openness? 

    Though openness may be called on for at such uncertain times, protecting the rights of the developers to ensure they reap the benefits of their efforts may be the only way forward to ensure ground-breaking innovations in the health sector. In the past we have witnessed governments intervening to remove such barriers to safeguard the public interest; in 2001, US Congress and the Administration were reported to have considered intervening Bayer’s patent on Cipro in order to hoard the drug against a potential anthrax attack. In the Cipro case, the Government used the threat of breaking the patent to negotiate a long-term contract with Bayer at an unusually low price. This approach might be termed ‘bending’ the patent. Admittedly, the governments more often than not are tempted to break patents covering important drugs or treatments that may help assuage a crisis. Furthermore, in light of the recent pandemic, Israel issued a compulsory license over AbbVie’s Kaletra which has resulted in AbbVie dropping its patent rights over the medicine worldwide. It is highly likely that we will soon see a surge in the use of compulsory licenses issued by governments to tackle experimental treatments of COVID-19, especially if the companies are not willing to disclose their research. However, will the efforts by the governments and policymakers result in an unintended consequence of discouraging efforts to innovate during crisis situations? Further, will it disincentivize innovators from developing crisis specific treatments? It is understandable that lawmakers are concerned about the greater good of the public and to keep them at bay but will these measures counter the very object of its implementation? These empirical question ought to be etched at the back of the government while issuing such directives because it would be unfortunate to see that the directions intended to protect the wellbeing and the health of the public has been the very reason for its demise. 


    Though the proactive measures and efforts by the governments are laudable and noteworthy, we need to determine whether they are a step forward in the right direction or two steps backward. The predicament that the policymakers have found themselves in this crisis is a murky and unclear one, where a step to assuage the crisis has the potential to substantially and detrimentally affect the domain of patent and copyright laws. At this juncture, it is necessary to not compromise the welfare of the public nor squander the spirit of innovation, but create a delicate balance of the two to navigate through this crisis. Though compulsory licensing may appear to be the apt solution at this fork on the road, what will its impact be on the innovators once we come out of this crisis? Or will the most valuable drugs and technologies not be catered for crisis situations such as these? Successfully navigating through this labyrinth of hurdles and uncertainty will lead to a more sophisticated and efficient regime for patent protection in the health sector for the future. 

    Companies Fresh Start Scheme

    The world at present is undergoing one of the worst pandemics in its history and this has forced countries to shut their economies and patiently wait for this unprecedented time to pass by. While on one hand, governments are issuing orders to ensure the safety and protection of its citizens, on the other hand, they are introducing schemes and policies to stabilize the economy and safeguard their trade and commerce. One such measure is the Companies Fresh Start Scheme, 2020 (hereinafter, ‘CFSS’) which was introduced by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs of India (hereinafter ‘MCA’). It was passed on March 24, 2020, vide circular no. 12/2020 and on March 30, 2020, vide circular no. 13/2020 under Section 460 of the Companies Act, 2013 (hereinafter, ‘Act’) read with Section 403. This was done after taking into account various representations made by the stakeholders who were requesting for an extension to enable them to complete their pending compliances by filing necessary documents in the MCA-21 registry. This included annual filings without being subject to pay higher additional fees on account of any delay. Hence, CFSS aims to condone the delays of filing certain pertinent documents with Registrar as mentioned above and also relates to the waiver of additional fees and also granting of immunity from proceedings to impose a penalty on account of delay associated with these flings.

    This Scheme shall be applicable to any “Defaulting Company” and shall commence from April 01, 2020, to September 30, 2020. According to the Companies Act, 2013, “Defaulting Company” means a company which has made a default in filing of any of the documents, statement, returns, etc. including annual statutory documents (AOC-4 & MGT- 7) in the MCA-21 registry as per the due time. The basic rule of the Scheme is that “immunity will be provided to defaulting companies only in case of belated filings by waiving off additional fees however where proceedings involving the interest of any shareholder or its director, or key managerial person or any other person belonging to the company than immunity shall not be provided”. 

    It is of pertinent consideration to note that CFSS shall not have any retrospective effect.  Further, companies that are “inactive” will not be eligible to benefit from the Scheme. Accordingly, “Inactive Company” means a company which has not been carrying on any business or operation, or has not made any significant accounting transaction during the last two financial years, or has not filed financial statements and annual returns during the last two financial years. The Ministry has also uploaded the list of 76 “Eligible Forms” in the public domain which waives off additional fees for belated filings which comprises of e-forms under the Companies Act 2013, Companies Act 1956 and LLP’s. All these pro-active measures by our Government are laudable and noteworthy and continue to reinforce our faith and belief in the system at these troubled times.

    COVID-19 expense of Companies to be counted as CSR expenditure

    On 23rd March 2020 the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (hereinafter, ‘MCA’) announced that expenditure for measures taken to tackle the COVID-19 outbreak will be included in the corporate social responsibility (hereinafter, ‘CSR’) activity of the respective companies. The CSR rules make it mandatory for large firms to set aside at least 2% of their average net profit to contribute to socially responsible activities. The rules are applicable to firms with at least rupees five crore net profit or rupees thousand crore turnover or rupees five hundred crores net worth. Further, the government also announced that all donations made to the PM- CARS Fund will be eligible for a 100% tax reduction under the Indian laws.

    In light of this the notification issued by the MCA reads, “keeping in view of the spread of novel Coronavirus (hereinafter, ‘COVID-19’) in India, its declaration as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation, and, the decision of the Government of India to treat this as a notified disaster, it is hereby clarified that spending of CSR funds for COVID-19 is eligible CSR activity.” This was done with the intention of inviting more support and funds from the public since there are various ways in which a company can use its CSR funds to help the country fight COVID-19.

    The MCA stated that the funds spent on the promotion of healthcare, including preventive healthcare, sanitation, and disaster management would squarely fall within the definition of a company’s CSR obligations and responsibilities. Some of the expenditures that are considered as CSR include, contributions made to state disaster management authority to fight against COVID-19, expenditure on COVID-19 related activities like sanitation and any ex-gratia payment made to temporary/part-time workers which is over and above their daily wages. However, the ministry was particular to clarify that daily wages to workers are part of the contractual obligation of employers which cannot be side-lined and thus cannot be considered as a CSR expenditure.

    The circular also pointed out that the broad terms as per Schedule 7 of the CSR policy, which deals with the activities that constitute CSR activity, may be interpreted liberally for this purpose. This seems to be a blessing for the Government who was struggling to find funds to tackle COVID-19, while at the same time ensuring that as many hands as possible are on board to help fight against COVID-19.

    Regulation relating to doorstep delivery of medicines

    In the wake of the 21-day lockdown, the Union Health Ministry on March 26, 2020 allowed for essential medicines to be delivered to one’s doorstep. This was done in an effort to restrict people’s movement and ensure that the nationwide lockdown is a success without curbing access to essential supplies. In light of the widespread pandemic, it seemed necessary for the government to issue such an order taking into account the greater public interest. Such a measure is bound to regulate the distribution of medicines and ensure that the demand is adequately met even at such desperate hours. The notification issued by the Health Ministry allows for medical retailers to deliver medicines at people’s doorsteps. The order came into force on the day of its publication in the official gazette and it read,

    “The central government is satisfied that retail sale of drugs to the doorstep of consumers is essential to meet the requirements of emergency arising due to COVID-19 and in the public interest, it is necessary and expedient to regulate the sale and distribution of drugs for their delivery to consumers.”

    The notification further read that the licensee shall present an e-mail ID for registration with the licensing authority if prescriptions are to be received via email. Further, the prescription shall only be dispensed with if it is presented to the licensee within 30 days of its issue and in severe or critical cases, the prescription shall only be dispensed with if it is presented to the licensee within a week of its issue. Also as per the notification, the bill shall only be sent through the return email and records of all such transactions shall be maintained by the licensee. By allowing the availability of essential medicines, the government ensured that there is no reason to panic and advised the population to avoid all unnecessary travel and outdoor activities. Such proactive initiates and measures will assure the citizens of India that their safety and protection are of utmost importance.

    The order issued by the Union Health Ministry is commendable on various fronts and is a reflection of the staunch leadership of the Indian Government which is navigating the path for its citizens through the murky waters that have engulfed the country for the past month.

    Suspension of limitation period during COVID-19

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) directive that classified the Coronovirus outbreak (‘COVID-19’) outbreak as a global pandemic, a lot of anxiety and concern stirred across the globe leading governments to take measures to “flatten the curve” and ensure utmost protection to its citizens. This period reflects a point in history when the entire world economies are grappling to stand upright and tackle this menace of COVID-19 that has consumed both lives and resources while governments and state machineries are working hand in hand to contain the pandemic and show light to its citizens. The Indian Government and its state machineries are no exception to this.

    In view of these unprecedented circumstances the Indian Government declared a complete lockdown for 21 days on March 24, 2020 which severely curtailed the mobility of its citizens and adversely affected the functioning off the state machineries, including the various courts and tribunals.

    In light of these circumstances, on March 23, 2020 Supreme Court of India directed the suspension of the limitation period under both general and special laws with effect from March 15, 2020. This was done in furtherance of their plenary powers under Article 142 read with Article 141 the Indian Constitution. The bench comprised of Chief Justice S A Bobde and Justices L N Rao and Surya Kant who stated that the Court had taken sou motu cognizance of the current situation which had made it difficult for litigants and lawyers to approach the respective courts and complete the filings within the period of limitation. In this regard, the order passed by the three- Judge Bench reads,

    “To obviate such difficulties and to ensure that lawyers/litigants do not have to come physically to file such proceedings in respective Courts/Tribunals across the country including this Court, it is hereby ordered that a period of limitation in all such proceedings, irrespective of the limitation prescribed under the general law or Special Laws whether condonable or not shall stand extended w.e.f. 15th March 2020 till further order/s to be passed by this Court in present proceedings.”

    The Supreme Court further notified that this order was to be brought to the attention of all the High Courts, subordinate Courts and Tribunal. The decision by the Supreme Court is noteworthy and laudable and is bound to assure its citizens that justice is not uncertain at point of time where the entire country is battling this global pandemic.

    What exactly is the name of this host

    That’s a ton extra than four billion-it is a 34 with 37 zeros immediately after it (or two to the 128 th ability). Technically, 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,455 .

    Which is a whole lot of IP addresses. That’s all superior to know, but how do you discover your IP tackle?Find Your Web/Public IP Tackle. There may perhaps appear a time when you need to have to know the IP tackle of your router, as assigned by your ISP. This can be especially helpful for issues like VoIP calls or remote management software package. What you are going to also locate is that there’s lots of details about you attached to that IP address, specially your ISP’s title and your normal place (called a GeoIP). Which is since ISPs dole out a vary of IP addresses.

    • Can somebody else utilize your Wi-fi devoid of security password
    • Just how do i get my IP address for my Wireless
    • What on earth is open IP and local IP
    • Will you see who may be with your WiFi
    • Why is there an undiscovered equipment on my small group
    • How do i account to my router
    • Can my Ip be switched

    Figuring out your supplier and common site based mostly on IP address is as uncomplicated as consulting a public listing. The simplest way to check your router’s community IP handle is to lookup “what is my IP?” on Google. With Google, that’s all you see. There are lots of web-sites out there that will show you the specific same factor.

    Just how do you confirm the number of products are connected to your WIFI

    They see it basically due to the fact by browsing the web site, your router has built a ask for, and as a result unveiled the IP handle. Internet sites like WhatIsMyIP. com and IPLocation all go farther, exhibiting off the names of your ISP, your town, and even maps. The GeoIP info is much from foolproof. Normally, you’re heading to get an approximation of locale-in which the service provider is, not the real computer system. In visiting those people web-sites, I was advised I was in Ithaca, New York. and Syracuse, New York.

    Just one gave a latitude/longitude that place me in North Carolina (which could be exactly where my ISP has a details center, for all I know). Be certain to log out of your VPN assistance, as well. Acquiring a authentic tackle for the public IP tackle normally requires a research warrant taken to the ISP. Find Your Inside IP Deal with. Every system that connects to your interior community, be it at dwelling or the business office, has an IP address (your Computer, your smartphone, your intelligent Television, your network printer, etcetera. ) It won’t issue if it truly is working with Wi-Fi or Ethernet.

    • Am I Allowed To see what anybody is performing on my hotspot
    • Can two desktops have the similar IP address
    • Should you see who seems to be utilizing your Wi-fi
    • Just how do i determine if my Ip is world or exclusive
    • Precisely what is a 192.168 IP address
    • Should I shut down my router from my mobile
    • How should you look at your Ip

    What is actually my slot total for my IP address

    They’ve all bought an IP address if they’re talking to the world wide web, or every other, through your router. In the most essential network, your router is likely to have an IP deal with like 192. 168. 1, and that will be referred to as the “gateway. ” You can see it pop up a large amount as you glance for the IP addresses of other devices.

    That commonly implies your router will use DHCP to assign addresses to equipment, where by only the past octet variations. So 192. 168. 101, or 192. 168. 102, for illustration. It depends on the array outlined by your router. This is fairly considerably the exact same on all internal networks, since they’re concealed behind the router, which routes all that conversation in and out to the right sites. If you have a large inside community, a different range identified as a subnet will help divide your community into teams.

    The subnet mask utilized by most home networks is 255. 255. 255. So how do you come across it? In Home windows it requires the command prompt. Look for for ” cmd ” (without having the offers) using Windows lookup. In the resulting pop-up box, sort ” ipconfig ” (no estimate marks). What is unveiled is far more than just the IP tackle: you will see the IPv4 Tackle, the subnet mask, plus the Default Gateway (that’s your router). Glance over that row of info in the center, and it shows the kind of connection: “Ethernet adapter Ethernet. ” If I was using Wi-Fi, it would have info below “Wireless LAN adapter Wi-Fi. “On the Mac, it is a small significantly less esoteric. Go to the Method Tastes , choose Network , and it really should be ideal there.

    Simply click the connection kind on the left to see the IPs for every single form. You might need to click the TCP/IP tab at the top. Or you can go total geek and open the Terminal and form ” ipconfig ” just like on Home windows. On an Iphone, go into Configurations > Wi-Fi , and click the ” i ” in a circle ( ) subsequent to the community you happen to be on.